| Category=Ghettos |
|Websites over de getto's door de nazi's gebouwd om de Untermenschen op te sluiten, te concentreren en te deporteren. |
|Vorige 10 Volgende 10|
|6|| Ghetto van Siedlce (!) [Edit]||Ghettos|
|Webpage met informatie over het ghetto van Siedlce. De site bevat een aantal kaarten en foto's.|
|7|| Ghetto van Tarnow (!) [Edit]||Ghettos|
Website met algemene informaite over het ghetto van Tarnow. De website bevat een aantal kaarten en foto's.
|8|| Grodno (!) [Edit]||Ghettos|
|On 2 November 1942, the Ghettos I and II in Grodno were completely sealed off. In the morning the workers from Ghetto II were held up at the gate and suddenly the commandants of the two ghettos, Kurt Wiese (Ghetto I) and Otto Strebelow (Ghetto II), appeared and began shooting at the workers indiscriminately. 12 Jews were killed, forty were wounded, and the others fled wildly in panic. It was the first time that Grodno’s Jews had experienced sudden mass murder, perpetrated without warning. In the evening, the news spread through the city that the Jews from the neighbouring towns had been transported to the Kielbasin camp. The sealing of the two ghettos was accompanied by show-hangings and acts of group murder. Punitive executions were not only meted out for trying to escape. The fate of anyone caught smuggling food into the ghetto was also sealed. Shooting of Jews who were found carrying bread or other food became routine. About two weeks after the Jews in the neighbouring towns were taken to Kielbasin, the Germans began liquidating Ghetto II. First, however, they transferred those with useful professions from Ghetto II to Ghetto I. The first deportation from Ghetto II took place on 15 November 1942. The Jews were told that they were being sent to work, and, according to the testimony of Grodno survivors who reached Bialystok in 1943, the Judenrat and the other Jews in the ghetto believed this tale. Therefore, very few tried to hide. The deportees reached Auschwitz on 18 November, and before they were murdered they were given prepared postcards on which a sentence in German was printed: "Being treated well, we are working and everything is fine". They were ordered to sign the postcards and address them to their relatives in Grodno. The first deportation was followed by a brief lull in Ghetto II. But a few days later, on 21 November, everyone still in the ghetto was deported to Auschwitz. There is some uncertainty regarding the precise number of deportees, but it is probable that at least 4,000 inhabitants of the ghetto - those remaining in Ghetto II after the transfer of a similar number of Jews to Ghetto I - perished in Auschwitz as a result of these "actions".|
|9|| Jaworow (!) [Edit]||Ghettos|
The first attrocities against the Jews were organised here as early as September 1939. During the period of two weeks during which Jaworow was initially occupied by the Wehrmacht, the Germans, with the assistance of some Ukrainians, terrorized the Jews of the town. The main synagogue was burned down. Jews who were gathered around the synagogue had to sing religious songs whilst observing the burning synagogue. Many people were beaten in the streets. German soldiers cut the beards and carved swastikas on the heads of Orthodox Jews. During that time about 30 people were killed in Jaworow, mainly in accordance with a special list prepared by the Ukrainian mayor. At the end of September 1939, control of Jaworow passed to the Soviet Union, and the town remained under Soviet occupation until 22 June 1941. During the period of Soviet occupation, a group of Jewish refugees from the Generalgouvernement arrived in the town and the Jewish population increased to 3.000. The Soviets nationalized Jewish trade, and some wealthy Jews were persecuted on the grounds that they were "capitalists". The Soviets deported some of the Jewish refugees and many Poles from Jaworow to Siberia.
|10|| Kielce Ghetto (!) [Edit]||Ghettos|
|Kleine webpage met algemene informatie over het ghetto van Kielce. De webpage bevat een paar foto's en kaarten|
|11|| Kolomyja (!) [Edit]||Ghettos|
In August 1941 a Judenrat was established, led by Mordechai (Markus, Motye) Horowitz. A centralised Judenrat operated in most districts, with Kolomyja including the towns of Kuty, Kosow, etc. This resulted in much argument between the various local and district Jewish representatives. The Judenrat organised the supply of Jewish labourers for the town administration. The Jews officially received wages amounting to 80% of the scale fixed for the 'Aryan' population. In reality, the Jews received much less. The wages were paid directly to the Judenrat which distributed a small amount to the actual worker, after taxes and other expenses. Survivors held very different opinions about the activities of the Judenrat generally and of Horowitz in particular. Some accused Horowitz of collaborating with the Germans; others believed that he was a victim of circumstances. Before the war Horowitz was a very well known and respected industrialist in Kolomyja, but he refused to be elected to the public institutions of the community and the city. During the war he was appointed to his position by the Gestapo, but before this occurred the Germans had wounded him, arrested him, and sentenced him to death. These facts weakened his will. Becoming the chairman of the Judenrat changed his life. Although before the war he was not a religious person, he organised minyans (the quorum of ten males necessary to conduct a religious service) in the office of the Judenrat, knowing very well that it was illegal. He paid attention to the poor. His resolve was probably also weakened by the fact that in September 1941 he had lost his wife. He had refused to release her from a group of arrested people, explaining that he could not treat her preferentially when other people were being taken to their death. Concerning other members of the Judenrat such as Dr Moshe Hutchnecker, Lazar Biber, Isser Reichman or those who collaborated closely with the Gestapo (Joel Jakobi, Itzele Ganeva – it is not possible to state today if these individuals were really members of the Judenrat), survivors' opinions are much more damning than those expressed in respect of Horowitz.
|12|| Krakov ghetto (!) [Edit]||Ghettos|
|Kleine webpage met algemene informatie over het Ghetto van Krakov. De webpage bevat een aantal foto's en kaarten.|
|13|| Krasnystaw (!) [Edit]||Ghettos|
The first Judenrat in Krasnystaw was established at the beginning of 1940. The President of this institution was Lipa Reichman. Other members were Issachar Rozenbaum, Alter Katz and Dawid Zylbercan. Survivors from Krasnystaw did not have a good opinion about their activities. Some members of the Judenrat were accused of bribery and collaboration with the German administration. From inception, the Judenrat was responsible for collecting the money and valuables that constituted the contributions demanded by the Nazis. The Jewish police of the town were also very active during these collections. Most of the members of the Jewish police were friends or relatives of Judenrat members. Among the Jewish policemen were Ben-Zion Rozenblat, Mosze Szmaragd, Josef Zylbercan and Zanwel Mittelman.
|14|| Lubartow (!) [Edit]||Ghettos|
|The first mass persecution of Jews and the major plunder of Jewish property took place on 12 October 1939. All Jews received orders to gather on the market square. German soldiers, armed with machine guns, surrounded them. At the same time, other soldiers robbed all Jewish shops and apartments. That which could not be taken was destroyed. At the beginning of November 1939, shortly after this "action", the Jewish community in Lubartow were ordered to leave the town. All Jews, other than 818 people who had to stay and work for the Germans, were deported to neighbouring towns – Firlej, Ostrow Lubelski and Kamionka. They were only allowed to take with them personal possessions and small amounts of money. The Lubartow Jews were exiled until September 1940, at which time they received permission to return to their own town. Only by bribing the Germans were a few people able to return earlier than the main group of deportees.|
|15|| Lublin (!) [Edit]||Ghettos|
In maart 1941 Lublin’s kondigde gouverneur Zörner het ghetto van Lublin aan. Het ghetto omvatte het oudste en armste deel van het historische Joodse district in de oude stad van Lublin. Een paar dagen voordat het ghetto werd opgezet werden 14.000 Lublin Joden ondergebracht in een aantal kleine kleine dorpjes rondom Lublin. Vroeg in het jaar 1942, werd het ghetto verdeeld in twee delen: A - het zogenoemde grote ghetto, voor Joden zonder werk, en B - dat bestond uit de 'betere' straten (Grodzka Straat, Kowalska Straat, Rybna Straat). In Ghetto B zat de Jodenraad met alle bijborende organisaties. Joden die voor de Duitsers werkte, w.o. doktoren die in de ziekenhuizen werkten. Ghetto B was omheind met prikkeldraad. Joden uit beide delen van het ghetto konden elkaar op gezette tijden bezoeken, mits zij in het bezit waren van een speciale pas. Toen het ghetto werd verdeeld was de beslissing over de deportatie van de Joden naar Belzec al genomen. Uiteindelijk overleefde slechts 200-300 van de oorspronkelijke of 40.000 Lublin Joden de oorlog, door zich te verbergen of onder te duiken.
|Vorige 10 Volgende 10|