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Ghettos
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Websites over de getto's door de nazi's gebouwd om de Untermenschen op te sluiten, te concentreren en te deporteren.
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11 Kolomyja (!) [Edit]Ghettos
In August 1941 a Judenrat was established, led by Mordechai (Markus, Motye) Horowitz. A centralised Judenrat operated in most districts, with Kolomyja including the towns of Kuty, Kosow, etc. This resulted in much argument between the various local and district Jewish representatives. The Judenrat organised the supply of Jewish labourers for the town administration. The Jews officially received wages amounting to 80% of the scale fixed for the 'Aryan' population. In reality, the Jews received much less. The wages were paid directly to the Judenrat which distributed a small amount to the actual worker, after taxes and other expenses. Survivors held very different opinions about the activities of the Judenrat generally and of Horowitz in particular. Some accused Horowitz of collaborating with the Germans; others believed that he was a victim of circumstances. Before the war Horowitz was a very well known and respected industrialist in Kolomyja, but he refused to be elected to the public institutions of the community and the city. During the war he was appointed to his position by the Gestapo, but before this occurred the Germans had wounded him, arrested him, and sentenced him to death. These facts weakened his will. Becoming the chairman of the Judenrat changed his life. Although before the war he was not a religious person, he organised minyans (the quorum of ten males necessary to conduct a religious service) in the office of the Judenrat, knowing very well that it was illegal. He paid attention to the poor. His resolve was probably also weakened by the fact that in September 1941 he had lost his wife. He had refused to release her from a group of arrested people, explaining that he could not treat her preferentially when other people were being taken to their death. Concerning other members of the Judenrat such as Dr Moshe Hutchnecker, Lazar Biber, Isser Reichman or those who collaborated closely with the Gestapo (Joel Jakobi, Itzele Ganeva – it is not possible to state today if these individuals were really members of the Judenrat), survivors' opinions are much more damning than those expressed in respect of Horowitz.
12 Krakov ghetto (!) [Edit]Ghettos

Source www.death-camps.orgKleine webpage met algemene informatie over het Ghetto van Krakov. De webpage bevat een aantal foto's en kaarten.
13 Krasnystaw (!) [Edit]Ghettos
The first Judenrat in Krasnystaw was established at the beginning of 1940. The President of this institution was Lipa Reichman. Other members were Issachar Rozenbaum, Alter Katz and Dawid Zylbercan. Survivors from Krasnystaw did not have a good opinion about their activities. Some members of the Judenrat were accused of bribery and collaboration with the German administration. From inception, the Judenrat was responsible for collecting the money and valuables that constituted the contributions demanded by the Nazis. The Jewish police of the town were also very active during these collections. Most of the members of the Jewish police were friends or relatives of Judenrat members. Among the Jewish policemen were Ben-Zion Rozenblat, Mosze Szmaragd, Josef Zylbercan and Zanwel Mittelman.
14 Lubartow (!) [Edit]Ghettos
The first mass persecution of Jews and the major plunder of Jewish property took place on 12 October 1939. All Jews received orders to gather on the market square. German soldiers, armed with machine guns, surrounded them. At the same time, other soldiers robbed all Jewish shops and apartments. That which could not be taken was destroyed. At the beginning of November 1939, shortly after this "action", the Jewish community in Lubartow were ordered to leave the town. All Jews, other than 818 people who had to stay and work for the Germans, were deported to neighbouring towns – Firlej, Ostrow Lubelski and Kamionka. They were only allowed to take with them personal possessions and small amounts of money. The Lubartow Jews were exiled until September 1940, at which time they received permission to return to their own town. Only by bribing the Germans were a few people able to return earlier than the main group of deportees.
15 Lublin (!) [Edit]Ghettos
Source www.death-camps.orgIn maart 1941 Lublin’s kondigde gouverneur Zörner het ghetto van Lublin aan. Het ghetto omvatte het oudste en armste deel van het historische Joodse district in de oude stad van Lublin. Een paar dagen voordat het ghetto werd opgezet werden 14.000 Lublin Joden ondergebracht in een aantal kleine kleine dorpjes rondom Lublin. Vroeg in het jaar 1942, werd het ghetto verdeeld in twee delen: A - het zogenoemde grote ghetto, voor Joden zonder werk, en B - dat bestond uit de 'betere' straten (Grodzka Straat, Kowalska Straat, Rybna Straat). In Ghetto B zat de Jodenraad met alle bijborende organisaties. Joden die voor de Duitsers werkte, w.o. doktoren die in de ziekenhuizen werkten. Ghetto B was omheind met prikkeldraad. Joden uit beide delen van het ghetto konden elkaar op gezette tijden bezoeken, mits zij in het bezit waren van een speciale pas. Toen het ghetto werd verdeeld was de beslissing over de deportatie van de Joden naar Belzec al genomen. Uiteindelijk overleefde slechts 200-300 van de oorspronkelijke of 40.000 Lublin Joden de oorlog, door zich te verbergen of onder te duiken.
16 Lvov (!) [Edit]Ghettos

On 8 November 1941, the German civilian administration issued the order to establish a ghetto in Lviv. All Jews were forced to move into the ghetto before 15 December 1941. The German police organized selections on Peltewna Street during this time. Nearly 5,000 elderly and sick Jews were selected and shot. This "action" was called "Action under the bridge". At this time there were between 110,000 and 120,000 Jews in the ghetto.
17 Miedzyrzec Podlaski (!) [Edit]Ghettos
Early 1940, large transports, each with around 1,500 resettled Jews from Nasielsk, Pultusk, Serock, Lodz and Gdynia arrived. Until early 1941 other transports also arrived from Krakow (740 people) and Mlawa (1,400 people). In addition, a group of Jewish POWs from the former Polish army was sent to the town. Most of the deportees possessed nothing except their own clothes. Hunger and lack of space became the biggest problems. Around 650 Jews were housed in the unheated synagogue. According to the JSS report from early 1941, 6-8 people died from starvation every day. The daily bread ration was 100 grams (working Poles received 260 grams).
18 Minsk (!) [Edit]Ghettos

Towards the end of the summer of 1941, Adolf Eichmann was summoned to a meeting with Heydrich and informed that Himmler had received an order from Hitler for the physical annihilation of the Jews.With effect from 15 September 1941, all German Jews over the age of 6 were ordered to wear the yellow Star of David. On 23 October, Heinrich Müller, the head of the Gestapo, issued a decree authorised by Himmler prohibiting the emigration of Jews from countries under German control.On 8 November Lange informed Lohse that 25,000 Jews from Germany, Austria and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia were to be deported to Minsk.In order to make room for them in the ghetto, 12,000 Jews had been slaughtered near the village of Tuchinki on 7 November. Three days later the first 1,000 German Jews from Hamburg arrived in Minsk, to be followed within days by more than 6,000 deportees from Frankfurt am Main, Bremen and the Rheinland. On 18 November a train arrived from Berlin. Subsequent transports brought Jews from Vienna, Brno and other cities in the Reich and the Protectorate.
19 Piotrkow Trybunalski (!) [Edit]Ghettos
Piotrkow was occupied on 5 September 1939. The persecution of the Jewish population began immediately. Men were seized in the streets for slave labour. Beatings and killings became commonplace. Although approximately 2,000 Jews had managed to escape from the town to the Soviet-occupied zone in the initial days of the occupation, throughout 1939-40 the population was swollen by Jews from neighbouring towns and other places in Poland, including Warsaw, Lodz, Belchatow, Kalisz, Gniezno, and Plock.Headed by Zalmen Tenenbaum, a former Vice-President of the pre-war Jewish Council, a 24 member Judenrat was established in the early days of the occupation. Tenenbaum was also appointed President of all of the Judenräte of the county of Piotrkow. In October 1939, the Wehrmacht transferred the administration of the city to the civilian authorities under the command of Oberbürgermeister Hans Drexel, who on 8 October 1939 issued a decree establishing a ghetto, the first in occupied Poland. As elsewhere, living conditions in the ghetto were appalling. 5,000-6,000 people had lived in the ghetto area before the war; now 28,000 were incarcerated there. Many houses had no electricity, water supply or basic facilities. The ghetto was closed on 28 October.
20 Przemysl (!) [Edit]Ghettos

The conditions for the Jews deteriorated abruptly in July/August 1941 after a civil administration under town commander Giesselmann was established and the GPK started "the shadowing of the Jews" ("Beschattung der Juden"). In late autumn 1941, the town quarter of Garbarze was proclaimed as a Jewish residential area. It was bordered in the west, north and east by the bend of the San River and in the south by the railway route Lwow - Krakow. In winter, the Jews were forced to hand over their valuables and various household goods. Those who did not comply with the Nazi decrees were beaten and imprisoned. On 26 December 1941 Schutzpolizei (Schupo), along with Volkdeutsche (ethnic Germans) and Polish policemen, entered Jewish homes and seized furs and other clothing. Schupo officers started to remove any furs and fur collars from the coats of all Jewish men and women they came across in the streets. They also removed winter boots, mainly from women, and left people barefoot in the street. Jews had to hand over most of their property. From spring 1942, con­secutive shootings of groups of Jews at the Jewish cemetery at Slowackiego Street began. These shootings were carried out by Gestapo officials in charge of Jewish affairs (Judensachbearbeiter), but also by members of the GPK.
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