| Category=Ghettos |
|Websites over de getto's door de nazi's gebouwd om de Untermenschen op te sluiten, te concentreren en te deporteren. |
|Vorige 10 Volgende 10|
|21|| Radom (!) [Edit]||Ghettos|
|In the winter of 1941/1942, the Radom Judenrat was ordered to transmit precise instructions to the heads of the Judenräte in the Radom region to prepare maps of each ghetto and lists indicating the ages and professions of the residents. In early 1942, around 400 people belonging to the intelligentsia were shot or deported to Auschwitz, among them Diamant and Geiger. In the early summer of 1942, Odilo Globocnik, sent SS-Sturmbannführer Wilhelm Blum to Radom, with responsibility for the planning and execution of the deportation of the Jews from the city and its vicinity. The small ghetto was liquidated on 5 August 1942. It was sealed off by the German security police and Ukrainians. The Jews were forced to assemble at a site near the railway line. There around 600 old people and children were shot, 800 men and 20 women chosen for forced labour and more than 6,000 people, including 2,000 selected from the large ghetto, deported to Treblinka, the newly established death camp. Those who tried to hide in the ghetto, were tracked down and shot on the spot.|
|22|| Radomsko (!) [Edit]||Ghettos|
|On 20 December 1939, Radomsko became the second city in Poland to have a ghetto established, situated on Szkolna, Stodolna, Joselwicza, Strzalkowska, Fabianiego, and Mickiewicza Streets. A sign was placed at the entrances to the ghetto, reading: "This is the ghetto. Entering is strictly forbidden. For Jews, leaving the ghetto without the permission of the city commandant is strictly forbidden." The Judenrat was created on 15 November 1939 under the chairmanship of Mojsze Berger, later succeeded by Wiktor Gutsztat. Now a Jewish police force was also formed under the command of Natan Winer. Soon the small ghetto contained 4,500 people. Overcrowding was worse than ever, with an average of fifteen to twenty people living in one room. At first the residents of the ghetto thought that the transports had ceased, but the reprieve was temporary. On 6 January 1943, the Jews were driven to the Umschlagplatz. The younger ones, among them the entire Jewish police force, were sent to the Skarzysko-Kamienna labour camp, where earlier small transports had also been sent. All others, numbering approximately 4,000 individuals, were transported to Treblinka. 29 people were left to clean the ghetto and maintain housing. Later further Jews were added to this group until it totalled 41 people. The Germans estimated that about 800 Jews were still missing. As these were recaptured, they were taken to the Jewish cemetery and shot. After months of hardship and suffering, the last remnants of the Jews of Radomsko were sent to the Pionki labour camp on 21 July 1943.|
|23|| Rawa Ruska (!) [Edit]||Ghettos|
|In mid-July 1941 a Judenrat was established with Wastenberg as its President. At this time there was no closed ghetto in Rawa Ruska. Jews could live anywhere in the town as in pre-war days.The first act of terror in Rawa took place in October 1941 There was not a Gestapo or SD office in the town, which came under the jurisdiction of the SD office in Sokal. The first "action" in Rawa was organized at the end of March 1942. SD men from Sokal arrived in the town and, with the help of Ukrainian police, and in accordance with a special list, arrested about 1,000 Jews, who were gathered in the square before the Kripo office in the centre of the town. Everything was done without brutality. The arrested people – mainly elderly men and women - did not know why they had been gathered together and what the future held for them. The same day the deportees were led to the railway station and loaded onto a train; 100 Jews in every cattle car. All of them were deported to Belzec.|
|24|| Riga (!) [Edit]||Ghettos|
German forces occupied Riga on 1 July 1941. Although some Jews had fled the city eastwards in the wake of the retreating Red Army, many others who had taken refuge from the invaders in Riga were now trapped there. On the first day of the occupation, Latvian collaborators began arresting thousands of Jewish men and imprisoning them in the Centralka and Terminka jails, as well as in police headquarters and at the premises of Perkonkrust. The prisoners were first brutalized, then approximately 2,700 of them were murdered in the nearby Bikernieki Forest. A further several thousand Jewish males were killed in Bikernieki Forest and at other locations during the course of July. On 4 July, Latvian volunteers set fire to the Chor synagogue, killing an unknown number of Jews who were locked inside the building, and later burned all other synagogues with the exception of the Pietstavas synagogue, which was left standing since adjacent buildings were occupied by Latvians.
|25|| Rzeszow (!) [Edit]||Ghettos|
|26|| Tomaszow Mazowiecki Ghetto (!) [Edit]||Ghettos|
Webpage met informatie over het Tomaszow Mazowiecki Ghetto. De site bevat een aantal kaarten en foto's.
|27|| Vilna (!) [Edit]||Ghettos|
|It has been estimated that of the 265,000 Jews living in Lithuania in June 1941, 254,000 or 95% were murdered during the German occupation. No other Jewish community in Nazi-occupied Europe was so comprehensively destroyed.|
|28|| Warschau (!) [Edit]||Ghettos|
In November 1941 the ghetto was sealed off. There were already 445 deaths in the ghetto. The death toll thereafter rose rapidly: in January 1941 to 898, in April to 2,061, in June to 4,290 and in August to 5,560. Then the monthly figure fluctuated between 4,000-5,000 for as long as the ghetto existed. The ghetto’s ties with the outside world were handled by the Transferstelle, a German authority that was in charge of the traffic of goods, both into and out of the ghetto. The first official in charge of this office was Alexander Palfinger, finally succeeded by a certain Bischof. In the summer of 1941, some 11,300 were sent to labour camps in Warsaw, Lublin and Krakow, where they were forced to do back-breaking work, suffering from hunger, poor sanitary conditions and harsh discipline. Another focal point of authority and power in the Warsaw ghetto was an agency known as the "13", which took its name from the address of its headquarters on Leszno Street. The "13" network was closely identified with the name of its founder and moving spirit, Abraham Gancwajch and the group of men of his environment. Gancwajch and most of his senior aides were not even veteran residents of Warsaw but had come to the city as refugees. In March 1942, at a meeting of the Warsaw Jewish leaders, Yitzhak Zuckerman, on behalf of the youth movements, sought to win agreement for creating an overall defence organisation. His proposal was turned down, regarded as too pessimistic. This failure led to the establishment of the "Antifascist Bloc", sponsored by the Communists and the "Zionist Left". This organization existed during March and April 1942, its military branch had 500 armed members. The plan of escaping to the forests and take up the fight from there, was not realized, expected weapons did not arrive... Just before the target date (in May 1942), the whole structure collapsed. The Communist leaders of the "Bloc" were imprisoned and the organization went out of existence.
|29|| Zamosc (!) [Edit]||Ghettos|
|On 11 April 1942, deportations from Zamosc began. Around noon of that day, the ghetto was surrounded by police and SS. In command of the deportation was Bruno Meiers, head of the Gestapo in Zamosc, although the actual chief of operations was one of his assistants, an SS-officer named Gotthard Schubert. The Jews were assembled in the market square, where they were forced to wait without food or water until 9 p.m. Scores of Jews who were discovered hiding in the ghetto, as well as elderly and sick people, were shot in their houses or in the streets. 3,000 Jews were marched to the train station and boarded 30 wagons destined for Belzec. Behind them they left the several hundred bodies of those who had been shot. In spring 1942, the first mass executions of members of the Jewish intelligentsia, accused of making contact with Communists, took place at the Rotunda in Zamosc. There were to be many further executions at the Rotunda. Among the victims were Jewish prisoners from the work camps in Zamosc and many Poles from pacified villages. The liquidation of the ghetto began on 16 October 1942. An estimated 4,000 Jews were assembled on the market square. 300 were left to sort the possessions of the deportees. The rest were marched 21 km to Izbica which was at that time not only a main transit ghetto for foreign Jews, but also a gathering point prior to deportation for Polish Jews from Krasnystaw and Zamosc counties. Many deportees from Zamosc were shot en-route to Izbica. It was not possible to find shelter in Izbica for all of those who remained. They were held in the open air without any sustenance.|
|30|| Zwolen (!) [Edit]||Ghettos|
The final liquidation of the Zwolen ghetto took place on 29 September 1942. The Jews had to walk 15 km to the Garbatka railway station and from there they were deported to the death camp in Treblinka. A last group of approximately 100 people was left in Zwolen, their task being the cleaning of the ghetto area. After completing this work, all of them were sent to a labour camp.
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